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Sonic Vectors: Possible Parallels Between Quantum Mechanics and Experimental Music in The Post-Digital Age

Abstract

Quantum mechanics dictates a reconceptualization of logic, reality, structures, and systems. It deconstructs the ontology of classical physics and embraces uncertainty and indeterminacy, which may lead to the rejection of reality as substantial and absolute. Historically, experimental music has always sought new perspectives to liberate music from conventional theoretical and cultural forms and formulas. This article examines the possibility of using the concepts of quantum mechanics to construct a possible new episteme for experimental music in the post-digital age. It discusses leveraging these concepts along with digital algorithms and computing power to speculate on new ways of producing, performing, presenting, and experiencing music as well as investigating music as a means for the development of sensibility toward infinite potentialities.


Introduction

In Deleuze's view, potentiality has a fundamental place in the definition of life. He writes, "A life contains only potentiality. It consists of potentiality, events, and singularities. We call it potentiality not because it lacks reality, but because something is thrown into a process of actualization in a plane that gives it its own reality. Internal events are actualized in the state of things and life, which makes it happen. ... Events or singularities give all their potentialities to the plane, just as the inherent plane gives potential events complete reality" (Deleuze 2001,31). Music is a temporal process. It’s a continuous expansion of the present from the past and into the future. It creates a living assemblage of events, singularities, embodied experiences, and possible collective cognition which is attached to its unique spatiotemporal setting. Every new performance is somehow a new iteration and new actualization, exploring a plane of potentialities. Meanwhile, our technologies of creating, capturing, and transmitting sound, have gradually fixed the performance, composition, and experience of music in a single spatiotemporal setting.

Christopher Cox in his book “Sonic Flux” explores different phases of sonic territorialization, deterritorialization, and reterritorialization based on the writings of the theorist, improviser, and composer Chris Cutler. Prior to the invention and development of music notation, songs, and motifs were passed down orally from generation to generation. This process is called biological and communal capture. Cox writes, “For most of human (and animal) history, this form of memory was the only available mechanism of sonic capture, a form characterized by multiple mechanisms of selection and recording.” and “These repetitions and rhythms are marked in the auditory material itself, which is structured by recurring patterns, formulas, epithets and other mnemonic devices that aid the memory of performers and auditors alike” (Cox 2018,49-51).



Biological memory can be considered the first capturing technology. This form of capturing can access the plane of potentialities in its iterations. The musical variations were actualized depending on who the teacher was and how it was memorized and performed. “While fundamentally traditional, aimed at the preservation of ancestral culture, folk forms of transmission inevitably involve variant repetition and alterations that are amplified and passed on, ensuring that the song has no fixed or singular identity but is always in flux. As such, the biological memory system operates according to the same principle as biological reproduction, which combines repetition and difference, preserving genetic material without exact replication, and thus constantly generating variety and genetic drift” (ibid.,50).

The second capturing method is the music notation which Cutler called “symbolic capture”. Due to the desire for uniformity, standardization, and political pressures, it became the main method of capturing and transmitting music, resulting in more consistency across different performances, performers, and assemblages. Cox writes, “A second mode of sonic capture and recording— written musical notation— emerged in Europe in the Middle Ages. Initially, notation was intended merely as a supplement to biological and communal memory, an aide-mémoire for accomplished musicians. Yet centuries later, under the pressure of economic and political forces, the score emerged as a formidable system of musical memory” (ibid.,51-55). This method detached potentiality from musical transmission and performance (to some extent) and fixed them in the creation time. It should be mentioned that we are aware of the advantages of music notation systems such as the ability to develop more complex musical ideas, a more consistent way of passing musical compositions to others, and a more robust way of learning musical pieces. And the later attempts at graphical scores gave rise to more variant, subjective forms of scoring and interpretation. But here, our concern is the possible exploration of potentialities using iterations of a musical piece.

The third technology of capturing is audio recording which consists of various technologies from wax cylinders to digital recorders. Electronic capture along with analog and digital technologies of sound generation, manipulation, and playback has changed the spatiotemporal essence of music and its assemblage in every possible aspect (From composition to performance to listening and distribution). These changes have been so vast that spatiotemporality is no longer a considerable factor. Experiencing music was also detached from the performance space. Yet this new paradigm can create a new form of becoming that we want to explore here.


What Quantum Mechanics Can Teach Us About Experimental Music?

Classical physics tends toward a fixed and knowable form of reality. Similar to the struggle to formulate aesthetics and quantify music, classical physics attempts to render reality as a deterministic object. As Albert Einstein famously said, “God does not play dice with the universe”. However, the quantum theory leads to new perspectives. “Realism or objective reality assumes that the world and the universe exist ‘out there’ in a definite state independent of the observer and whatever measuring apparatus is used. This is the Newtonian view and the view of most humans. The Copenhagen view is another matter and brings the observer as an active participant into play. There is no objective reality and no potential for an exact deterministic description of reality. The Heisenberg principle, Bell’s Theorem, nonlocality, and the probability value of quantum theory lead us on another path. This path is to nonlocality! However, we may be able to reconcile natural local realism in a hyper-dimensional geometry, as well as the apparent nonlocality in the usual four Minkowski space, which appear contiguous in hyper-dimensional complex eight space” (Rauscher, Hurtak, and Hurtak 2019, 3).



Similar to our sonic capturing strategies, our observations in experiments such as quantum entanglement cause quantum wave functions to collapse and metaphorically force reality to reduce itself to one possibility. “Quantum entanglement involves two particles which can be two photons, each of which arises from a single source as a connected pair and each of which occupies multiple states at once or obeys linear superposition before a measurement is made. Nonlocal wave functions collapse when either one is measured, “causing” the other particle to instantaneously or superluminally assume a corresponding state. For example, a measurement at A gives spin up and hence the measurement at B gives the corresponding spin down” (ibid.,3). The quantum theory rejects dualism and extreme views of a permanent or unchanging reality. It defines reality as dynamic and transitory stages in a constant flow of transformation, interaction, and change: a non-dual co-emergent reality. This new view of reality leads us to an open system in which indeterminacy and uncertainty are not only acceptable but necessary for grasping the nonlinear relationship between potentiality and actuality. As Deleuze believed that the essence of life is not a determined entity, but an infinite potentiality and possibility. How can this new paradigm liberate music from its fixation point of production and the mechanisms of capturing, performance, and transmission?

In Sonic Vectors, we want to describe sound composition as a multistate system where each vector represents a state. To implement Sonic Vectors, we need to speculate about methods, inspired by quantum superposition so that the sonic piece unfolds itself each time it is performed or experienced. It can interact with potentiality and virtuality in itself while preserving the composer’s aesthetic decisions, intentions, and agency. This may suggest that our proposal overlaps with some of the more daring forms of improvised music as well as the traditional methods of music preservation and transmission mentioned in the previous section. What links our proposal to the quantum mechanical definition of reality is its openness, incompleteness, infinite potentiality, and indeterminacy.


Ontological Incompleteness

In many artistic practices, from Chinese traditional painting to Avant-garde and Fluxus movement, incompleteness and indeterminacy were embraced in order to explore beyond absolute literalism. Although each originates from a different epistemological perspective, these were their common ways of indirectly referring to the imperceptible, the unknown, and the infinite.

In experimental and avant-garde music, indeterminacy refers to the possibility of leveraging unpredictability as a means of composing or performing a piece. “In indeterminacy, the composer uses many experimental techniques and processes to compose his music but in certain parameters of the composition (such as timbre, amplitude, sequence of the parts) he leaves room for the performer to interpret it in its own way. According to this, the same piece of music will never be the same” (Jimenez 2018,8). This tendency toward liveness and exploration of unknown interactions beyond the spatiotemporal setting of the production can lead to openness and infinite potentiality.  Incompleteness and openness “give the sense of being swarmed by unarticulated signifiers and incipient movements: they are infused with an absolute vagueness that is the way in which potential presents itself in the unfolding of experience” (Priest 2013,19).


Cloudy Mountains - Fang Congyi

François Jullien writes about the vagueness in Chinese paintings and how Taoist thought works in this context: “There is room between the two extremes-(suddenecstatic) intuition and methodical understanding-for a clarification that, advancing by turns and variations, becomes stronger and more distilled, following the progress via entrenchment that constitutes wisdom. And just as determination is required to progress with an "always-more" in view (more potential, more knowledge, more to be had), indetermination is led to resume, to pursue, and to work, but by reducing, abandoning, breaking off, emptying out, withdrawing. In that way, something of pure existence (as an expression of immanence alone) can become visible, relieved of all logical and theoretical padding. This is what Taoist thinkers are trained for” (Jullien 2009,30).


In our proposed paradigm of Sonic Vectors “reducing, abandoning, breaking off, emptying out, withdrawing” means reducing the fixed conditions of the piece and defining an open system capable of interacting and responding to infinite indeterminacy through emergence, iterations, and variations. It is inevitable to think of Sonic Vectors as processes rather than static representations, but despite using the mentioned methods, the piece becomes a fixed object as soon as it is noted or recorded. And “If an actualization of an element or its opposite is rigorous and absolute, there is no more time; the logical element is fixed and immutable. Process as such is impossible” (Bishop and Brenner 2017, 9). We need to think about different strategies of capturing and documenting that are capable of containing liveness, openness, and potentiality. This form of openness extends the piece's liveness beyond its production and composition time to every subjective experience of it and its encounter with the outside.



This paradigm can be found in three theorems of reconceptualization of the usual notions of time and space which are presented by Robert R. Bishop and Joseph E. Brenner in developing their joint quantum-non-quantum perspective:

“1: The actualization or potentialization of a logical event is not a function of time, but time that is a function of the dynamics of actualization and potentialization.

2: Objects and events do not exist or take place in time, but are the sources of, or ‘unroll’, (déroulent) their own time.

3: Objects and events do not exist or take place in space, but are the sources of, or ‘unroll’, (déroulent) their own space” (ibid., 9-11).

The power to actualize the discussed open process probably lies in the power of computation and real-time digital processing.


Computation, Process, and Iteration

First of all, we should not confuse the use of computation with automation, predictive algorithms, and certain forms of machine learning and AI promoted by techno-capitalists. Ben Davis depicts the dystopian future of art in a techno-capitalist society in his book “Art in the After-Culture” by calling this profit-oriented form of technologies “neural aesthetic response production (NARP)”.  NARP is a technological apparatus capable of automating art creation based on users’ biofeedback and neurofeedback in real-time. He writes: “Such technology minimizes the amount of unprofitable dead time: not only does mental customization of art experience avoid the problem of cultural consumers having to learn to assimilate an alien set of symbols from another person or culture before deciding whether they appreciate it or not, but it also avoids the interruption of aesthetic experience involved in forcing consumers to reflect on what they would like to see or experience before they actually see or experience it. Outsourcing that decision to well-calibrated AI allows for maximum potential profitable aesthetic appreciation, a closed loop of pleasurable reward” (Davis 2022,10).



We must realize that our goal is not to define creativity and imagination using algorithms but to use computation as a means to explore the hidden potentials and even utilize it to reject the idea of the computability of art and imagination. This exploration can be found in Glitch music and how the failure and unpredictability that cannot be accommodated in technological determinism, led to a critical, conceptual, and aesthetic framework. As Eldritch Priest writes:” Cascone’s expressions of failure ‘glitches, bugs, application errors, system crashes, clipping, aliasing, distortion, quantization noise, and even the noise floor of computer sound cards’ are judgments made according to the way they skew the assumed functionality of the digitally instrumentalized artifact, a functionality that in contemporary industrial cultures revolves around expressions of speed, connectivity (to other digital technologies), and simulation. Yet these ‘failures’ are not naked failures. From this perspective, a ‘glitch’ is a dialectical attribute of digital technology’s core function and is at once a technological failure and an aesthetic success” (Priest 2013,7).


In addition to capturing and storing sound as data streams, digital processing offers new methods for sound design, new tools for structuring sound, and new compositional strategies and processes, from complex sound timbres to real-time processing, and two-way interactions. It also introduces space and body as compositional elements using spatial, and binaural audio technologies, wearable and physical computing. As we can see it’s more than a conversion from analog to digital. What we need to discuss is how we approach this apparatus and what we want to achieve. While thinking about sonic Vectors, it’s crucial to also think about the potentials and actualities of the medium.



Graham Harman in his book “Art and Objects” discusses what Greenberg meant by “taking the medium of an art too much for granted.” by quoting from a late-career lecture from him in Sydney: “Academicization isn’t a matter of academies – there were academies long before academicization and before the nineteenth century. Academicism consists in the tendency to take the medium of an art too much for granted. It results in blurring: words become imprecise, the color gets muffled, the physical sources of sound become too much dissembled “(Harman 2020,95). Greenberg articulates how this tendency prevents artists from transcending the constraints of the medium and somehow obscures its potential. Harman writes: "This passage is extraordinary for several reasons. On an obvious level, it gives us a lucid account of what Greenberg means by academicism, one that says more than it openly states. Academicism occurs when the conditions of the medium in which one is working are ignored; that much is plainly stated. But Greenberg also indicates what academic artists are paying attention to when they ignore the medium: namely, the content of art. We can infer from this that the proper role of the avant-garde is to pay attention to the medium rather than the content. But since every art has some sort of content, however minimal, the goal cannot be to erase content from art. Instead, the aim of the avant-garde should be that content somehow refers or alludes to its medium” (ibid.,95).


This paradigm of "not taking it for granted" gives us a framework for using digital technology to transcend its constraints. For instance, as soon as we think of post-internet technologies beyond streaming and consuming services, we can think of the idea of using real-time streaming as an active agent in the composition. This simple idea is capable of adding openness and incompleteness to how we compose, perform, experience, and store a sonic piece. For using algorithms and digital open systems to actualize our idea of composing a musical piece within the quantum superposition paradigm, we must first address the question of whether computation is capable of containing the virtual.

Deleuze ruled out the possibility that computation could contain the inexhaustible field of potential generation which he called the ‘virtual’, and “understood it (and discrete formalization, in general) as a finite instrument of quantitative calculation, ruthless prediction, and empty communication: as something that breaks with the immanence of thought and sensation in order to provide us with a cognitive representation or to use Deleuze’s terms, an ‘image of thought’” (Fazi 2018, 9). M. Beatrice Fazi in her book “Contingent Computation” argues that computation also involves becoming, indeterminacy, and infinity but “this becoming does not correspond to a virtual plane of continuous differentiation. Rather, it corresponds to discrete processes of determination, and it is engendered by the quantitative (and not qualitative) infinity that ingresses each and every one of these processes “(ibid.,204).  As “the creativity of digital technology derives from the abstract but very peculiar potentiality that stands behind its materiality, namely the idea to cut things (into bits, pixels, points, or dots) and recombine them, ad infinitum” (ibid.,39).



According to Deleuze, “A computer can return only what you put into it. In this logically determined scenario, abstraction is instrumental to blocking the infinity of thought into the finite order of calculation” (ibid.,51). But Fazi argued that “yet deductive algorithmic rule has to be complemented with the unpredictability of the environmental input so as to bring the indeterminacy of the real world into the computational system” (ibid.,3).  And “if digital technology is radically changing the way in which we perceive and experience, then this is partly because it contributes to the production of affects and movements of thought, whenever the virtual receives and registers the information, data, and inputs/outputs that the digital machine produces” (ibid.,37). So, computation is open to indeterminacy, becoming and incompleteness. However, “This indeterminacy is not that of life or lived experience, but is instead a mode of indetermination that is inherent to the logico-mathematical character of the computational system” (ibid.,116). Our biased tendency toward a universal, and fully determined form of computation, rejects this form of indeterminacy and prevents us “to rethink the undeniable abstractive capacity of computation in a manner that goes beyond the representational but remains within the formal and the quantitative” (ibid.,12). 


For a digital algorithm to become an open process, two main factors are needed: iteration and contingency. Iteration provides the means for the algorithm to have an immanence, while contingency forces the iteration to become dynamic, allowing for the actualization of the potential. The immanence consists of the artist’s aesthetic decisions, the self, the nowness, and how it interacts with the plane of potentialities as well as changes imposed from the outside. It’s the starting point, or “in quantum systems where forms of potentiality coexist with forms of actuality” (Bishop and Brenner 2017,12). The contingency is everything outside the self which compels it to go back to itself for a response, or an interaction, or an evolution. During these interactions, emergence and change happen. “Change is described by potential properties becoming actual and actual properties becoming potential” (ibid.,8). Emergence is imposed not only from the outside but also from the internal elements of the system. “Since it develops from the interactions of its components, the behavior of an emergent system cannot be predicted deductively. Emergence is therefore applauded as an inductive explanatory framework, oriented toward the indeterminacy of empirical phenomena” (Fazi 2018,159). The relationship between immanence and contingency is symbiotic, dynamic, and creative itself. “The virtual is a vector toward actualization, yet the actual also depends on the virtual insofar as virtuality expresses actuality’s transcendental condition” (ibid.,70). As Yuk Hui describes this relationship in his book “Recursivity and Contingency”: “Recursivity is not only a mechanism that can effectively “domesticate” contingency, as we have seen in Hegel; it is also a mechanism that allows novelty to occur, not simply as something coming from outside but also as an internal transformation. Technics in general is that which attempts to eliminate contingency, but in comparison with technical objects based on linear causality and hence susceptible to contingencies, the recursive mode can effectively integrate contingency in order to produce something new; in other words, it demands constant contingencies” (Hui 2019,144). 

In the next section, I am going to briefly present two of my projects in which I tried to explore Sonic Vectors using art-based research methods.


Kinesis



Kinesis is a digital sonic environment that explores the relationship between sound, space, performer, and computation. A group of AI agents were trained using reinforcement learning to create generative spatial sound objects that react to human presence using their unpredictable behaviors. The result is an ever-changing digital audio-visual structure that transforms the space in an unrepeatable manner. The listeners/performers become active by walking and positioning themselves among the objects and indirectly navigating the composition. The agents constantly react to the performer's actions. These reactions affect the sonic features such as frequency, pitch, duration, and amplitude. While the system interacts with the virtual plane of continuous differentiation of its components, every subjective experience becomes a part of the system by encountering it through sense-making.




The VR Immersion opens opportunities for creating embodied experiences of soundscapes to counteract the one-way communication mode of listening. On the other hand, interactive and real-time soundscapes can develop a new form of open scores and shift the attention back to a more holistic perception of sound and an active engagement that relies on a more locative, communicational mode. While the mainstream technologies promote HCI as a force of teleological operativity, there’s a potentiality of developing experimental methods of human-computer interaction to go beyond this functionalist mindset and toward explorative and indeterministic narratives and scenarios.




Aut0mata Ensemb1e



"Aut0mata Ensemb1e" is a sound art research performance that seeks to investigate causal activities of machine learning agents, human-machine interaction, and sonic objects as means for creating improvisational music performances to explore non-symbolic, non-human forms of music and performance.



With these performances, "Aut0mata Ensemb1e" studies the performativity of AI agents in the creation of non-representational forms of music without emphasizing classic distinctions between musical and non-musical objects and human and nonhuman creativity and freed from musical notation and the rules and limits of traditional artistic and musical procedures to encounter the concrete and pure materiality of sounds through a spontaneous, improvisational and emergent approach toward music-making and performance. Inspired by the ideas of Action Music, Butch Morris's conduction methods, and by monitoring the causal agency of AI agents, it creates an assemblage for improvisation and performance of AI agents and human performers.


Conduction gestural instructions –which Morris called “directives”

"In a Conduction (Morris, personal communication) the sequence of the conductor’s directives is not discussed before playing or outlined in written form: at any given moment of musical interaction, instrumentalists do not know beforehand who is going to play what, when and how, having access to such fundamental organizing parameters of music making only when gesturally instructed by the conductor. Conduction thus differs from traditions bound to notation such as Western art music, whereby musicians’ actions are both “described” and “prescribed” by a written score, that is, a coordinating device to which conductor and instrumentalists can orient and have access prospectively" (Veronesi, 2019, 4).



Based on Morris's method Human Performer will appear in the piece as conductor, observer, and examiner by communicating with the agents using different hand gestures to communicate with agents and to conduct the improvisation to some degree.

 

Bec0m1ng: A Speculative Exploration of AI Beyond Cognition and Toward Presence

Bec0m1ng speculates about a possible transcendental form of presence that can emerge from the causal freedom of probabilistic AI models. It consists of a digital environment with a fixed amount of matter and a group of AI agents. They have to collect and share the resources at the same time to keep the whole ecosystem in balance. This process enables a constant flux of becoming, formation, and transformation in which all is one. By prioritizing presence over cognition and logic, this project imagines a possible interaction of AI with the world, in which a non-dominant coexistence is established within an assemblage of everything.



Inspired by Persian philosopher Suhrawardi’s Ishraqi doctrine, instead of material bodies (al-barzakh) that represent the mechanical appearance of the AI agents, the environment and the agents were designed using luminous forms (immaterial entities). As Suhrawardi argued that “Beings can be distinguished by their degree of light, or otherwise of darkness. Light may be understood here as “existence” in the sense of actus essendi, whereby light is the only single reality. This identification of Light and Being is possible when light is understood as universal matter—material prima universalis” (Mahmoud, n.d.,22).




The real-time virtual environment is an audio-visual interpretation of the presence of these non-human beings and an exploration of the emerging aesthetics of behavioral patterns that result from their active agency. The causal soundscape of the piece is a spatial composition created from the motor activities of AI agents. This continuous becoming constructs a speculative soundscape which can be defined as the territorialization of space by nonhumans. This posthuman soundscape is indifferent to human sensibilities and aesthetic apprehensions, yet there’s a potentiality “to intersect the decoded milieu of space with an anthropic ‘zone of residence’” (Deleuze and Guattari 1987,315). Bec0m1ng depicts this possible scenario through a dialectic process of alienation and sensibility.



Encountering technological beings that function without human-imposed telos is alienating. While this alienation brings forth an act of presence that reveals Being to allow Dasein to experience it without objectification.

 

Conclusion

Priest writes: “Pop and film music, for example, function on an industry myth that music’s social and emotional cues are reducible to a set of formulae and therefore representative of a well-ordered system of cause and effect. India’s classical music, which classifies its rāgas (melodic formula) according to their appropriateness to a particular time of a day or season, and the traditional work songs of Sub-Saharan Africa whose rhythms are used to coordinate the body’s movement with the timings of a task, explicitly emphasize music as an organizing force However, when music’s ambiguous or indeterminate nature is emphasized, even though its forms may still be embedded in distinct social practices with their own set of norms and conventions, it loses its status as an existential appliance and tends to fall into the category of the “experimental,” a category like nonsense “that gives us a place to store any mysterious gaps in our systems of order” (Priest 2013,17).

We explored Sonic Vectors as a conceptual framework for documenting, performing, distributing, and experiencing music, in order to transform music from a fixed point in spacetime into an organic process of enfoldment and becoming. “In 1968, Hilary Putnam wrote that quantum mechanics requires a revolution in our understanding of logic per se. “Logic is as empirical as geometry. … We live in a world with a non-classical logic” (Bishop and Brenner 2017,4). If we recognize sound as a medium for gaining sensibility and aesthetic knowledge, we must consider strategies that open it outward and toward the infinite, so it becomes a process that interacts with the actualities and potentialities of “itself” and the outside in a dynamic interplay. In this manner, it can be a conceptual framework capable of transcending discursive knowledge. As Bernd Herzogenrath explores it from Deleuzian perspective: “A thinking that does not derive its parameters|concepts from an exterior “verified knowledge” (Deleuze calls this “recognition”) in order to adapt the object of investigation to these parameters, but rather a thinking that develops its very concepts from the examination of the object of investigation (Deleuze calls this “encounter”): here—a thinking with and by means of sound, not a thinking about sound, which eventually does not deal with the question what music is, but rather what music can become. And from this vantage point research and art, theory and practice, are coextensive” (Herzogenrath 2017,25-26).


References

·         Bishop, Robert and Brenner, Joseph. Potentiality, Actuality and Non-Separability in Quantum and Classical Physics: Res Potentiae in the Macroscopic World., 2017.

·         Cox, Christoph. Sonic Flux: Sound, Art, and Metaphysics. Chicago; London: The University of Chicago Press, 2018.

·         Davis, Ben. Art in the After-Culture Capitalist Crisis and Cultural Strategy. La Vergne: Haymarket Books, 2022.

·         Deleuze, Gilles. Pure Immanence: Essays on a Life. Translated by Anne Boyman. New York: Zone Books, 2001:31.

·         Deleuze, G., and F. Guattari (1987), A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia, trans. R. Hurley, M. Seem, and H. R. Lane. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

·         Fazi, M. Beatrice. Contingent Computation: Abstraction, Experience, and Indeterminacy in Computational Aesthetics. Media Philosophy. London; New York: Rowman & Littlefield International, 2018.

·         Harman, Graham. Art and Objects. Cambridge, UK; Medford, MA: Polity, 2020.

·         Herzogenrath, Bernd. Sonic Thinking: A Media Philosophical Approach. Thinking Media. New York London Oxford: Bloomsbury Academic, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing, Inc, 2017.

·         Hui, Yuk. Recursivity and Contingency. Media Philosophy. London; New York: Rowman & Littlefield International, Ltd, 2019.

·         Jimenez, Francisco Chinchurreta. Microsound - Experiments in the digital Era. Academia. 2018. https://www.academia.edu/35634585/Microsound_Experiments_in_the_digital_Era

·         Jullien, François, and Jane Marie Todd. The Great Image Has No Form, or On the Nonobject through Painting. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2009.

·         Mahmoud, Samir. “From ‘Heidegger to Suhrawardi’: An Introduction to the Thought of Henry Corbin.” MPhil, Faculty of Divinity, University of Cambridge, England, UK, n.d.

·         Priest, Eldritch. Boring Formless Nonsense: Experimental Music and the Aesthetics of Failure. First edition. London, England: Zed Books, 2013.

·         Rauscher, E A, J J Hurtak, and D E Hurtak. “The Ontological Basis of Quantum Theory, Nonlocality and Local Realism.” Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1251, no. 1 (June 1, 2019): 012042. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1251/1/012042.

·         Sonic Thinking: A Media Philosophical Approach. Thinking Media. New York: Bloomsbury Academic, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing, Inc, 2017.

·         Veronesi, D. (2019) “Gestures and language in improvised music with Conduction®", in Alexandre Journeau, V., Zélia Chueke, Z. et Vassileva, B. (eds) Du signe à la performance - La notation, une pensée en mouvement, Paris, L'Harmattan, collection "L'univers esthétique".

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